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Christopher Jackson
Christopher Jackson

Man-made Fiber


Introduction: Textile fiber is an individual, fine, hair-like substance, which forms the fundamental components of all textiles. There are mainly two types of fiber. One is natural fiber and another is synthetic or man made fiber. Natural fibers are extracted from plants and animals. Manmade fiber are polyester, rayon, viscose staple fiber. Its is a process of wood pulp chemically treated and processed to make a fiber equal to natural fiber with same qualities.




man-made fiber


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Natural fibers:Natural fibers are those provided by Nature in ready-made form and need only to be extracted. Natural fibers are divided into three main classes according to the nature of source (origin), i. e. vegetable fibers, animal fibers, and mineral fibers as shown in Fig-2. Natural fibers such as cotton fiber, jute fiber, wool fiber, hemp, kenaf, jute, sisal fiber, banana, flax, oil palm, etc. have been in considerable demand in recent years due to their eco-friendly and renewable nature. In addition, the natural fibers have low density, better mechanical and thermal properties and are biodegradable.


Man Made fibers:Man-made fibers are classified into synthetic and regenerated fibers as shown in Fig-3. The polymers used for the spinning of synthetic fibers are chemical based, while regenerated fibers are derived from a natural polymer, most commonly cellulose. Plyester, nylon, viscose, acetate, acrylic, carbon, aramid, high performance fibers etc manmade fiber.


Cotton fiber is particularly well-suited for apparel and home end uses because of its strength, durability, comfort, and temperature resistance. And, in contrast to synthetic, man-made fibers, natural fibers occur in and are sourced directly from nature. For example, cotton is a natural vegetable fiber obtained from the seed of the cotton plant and produced on the plant in bolls. Here are a few of the biggest differences between natural and synthetic fibers and why they matter.


While manufactured fibers are manmade using materials like glass, metal, and plastic, natural fibers are processed and prepared for market without the use of any environmentally destructive synthetic filler fibers.


CIRFS monitors economic developments which affect the man-made fibres industry, including developments in international trade and the internal European market. It provides information and guidance to members on the possible effects, and prepares papers for use in contacts with the European Union and national governments.


CIRFS has an extensive data collection and analysis system, providing essential market information for its members on the level of production, deliveries and stocks in the man-made fibres industry in Europe.


BISFA (Bureau International pour la Standardisation des Fibres Artificielles) establishes the terminology of man-made fibres to improve continually company, customer and consumer communication. BISFA provides technical rules for man-made fibres and yarns and terms of delivery which have to be met.


By 1949 expensive silk stockings had fallen out of favor, and hosiery made from nylon and an expanding array of synthetic fibers dominated the market. These synthetics, which later came to include acrylic, polyester, and spandex, gave rise to a mass-market fashion defined by sweater sets and wash-and-wear suits. Yet the staggering success of nylon and its synthetic counterparts obscures the unlikely alliance of the chemical and fashion industries that underwrote the postwar fashion revolution. That alliance paved the way for synthetic materials to replace and even improve on traditional materials, such as silk, cotton, and wool, and ultimately become a natural part of modern life.


Economic, social, and cultural circumstances drove the rapid adoption and acceptance of nylon and the subsequent embrace of the synthetic fibers that followed. For manufacturers a shortage of traditional raw materials driven by the postwar boom enhanced the appeal of synthetic alternatives derived from abundant gas and oil. For fashion designers the durability, washability, and ease of care of nylon and other man-made fibers opened up creative possibilities that ultimately meant more clothing and accessories for the garment industry to manufacture and sell. And for consumers the unique characteristics of nylon and other synthetics led many to embrace these fibers not just as artificial substitutes for natural substances but as new materials in their own right.


Once manufacturers and consumers embraced synthetics, there was no going back. The revolution that began with nylon gave rise to new silhouettes, textures, and colors impossible to create with natural fibers and continued to shape consumer tastes in the decades to come.


In the 17th century the English scientist Robert Hooke suggested that it might be possible to imitate the process by which a silkworm produces silk. He proposed forcing a liquid through a small opening and letting it harden into a fiber. In the 19th century this process was tested with melted glass, but at that time the resulting fibers could not be spun and woven into a useful fabric. Today a large amount of glass fiber is manufactured. Some of it is made into cloth that is used for fireproof curtains, but most of it is used as reinforcing material in nontextile products. These products include flexible plastic tape for sealing packages, stiff plastics that are made into boat hulls and lightweight parts of automobiles, and rubber tires. Glass fiber is also collected in the form of batting for use as insulation and for filtering dust and other solid particles from streams of gases or liquids.


Extremely pure glass can be made into fibers that transmit light over long distances. Light is made up of waves that can carry information just as do radio waves, and telephone systems have been built in which bundles of glass fibers carry the message.


As chemists learned more about the molecular structure of materials, they began trying to make cellulose into new kinds of fibers. It is not easy to make cellulose into a liquid, however, because it does not melt or dissolve in any solvent. It can be combined with nitric acid, though, to form cellulose nitrate, or nitrocellulose, which does dissolve in a mixture of alcohol and ether. When the resulting solution is forced through small holes and the alcohol and ether evaporate, a fiber is formed. Nitrocellulose fibers are strong and flexible but are much too flammable to be used in textiles.


The French chemist Chardonnet found that nitrocellulose fibers can be chemically changed back to fibers of cellulose, which are much smoother and shinier than the original cotton or wood pulp from which they were made. The product, first called Chardonnet silk, was later renamed rayon; its commercial production began in France in 1891.


Other chemists discovered new ways to change cellulose into liquid forms. In one of these processes, cellulose is combined with a strong alkali, then with the compound carbon disulfide. The product, called cellulose xanthate, forms a thick syrup that can be pumped through a pinhole. When the jet of liquid that emerges does so into a solution of acid, the acid sets free the carbon disulfide, neutralizes the alkali, and regenerates the cellulose. The operation produces the fiber called viscose rayon, which has been manufactured since 1905. For a long time it was the best fiber for making the reinforcing cord in automobile tires. If the cellulose xanthate solution is forced through a narrow slit, a transparent film is formed. Called cellophane, great amounts have been produced for use as wrapping material.


Cellulose that has been combined with even larger proportions of acetic acid is called triacetate. It has been made since about 1954. It does not dissolve in acetone, but it does in other solvents such as chloroform or methylene chloride. The fibers made from it are not easily penetrated by water, so they dry quickly after being wetted. For this reason triacetate is used in making umbrellas and bathing suits.


Some of the substances discovered by the early polymer chemists turned out to be useful as plastics such as Bakelite and melamine. Others were resins that could be made into paints and varnishes. A few could be spun into fibers, but for a long time none was better than fibers already available.


During World War II nylon was used for making military equipment such as parachutes and tow ropes for gliders. After the war many applications were found for both fibers and plastics made from nylon-6,6. The fibers almost completely replaced silk for a time. Like rayon, they are very good for reinforcing tires. By the 1980s more than half the nylon produced was used in home furnishings such as carpets and upholstery material. Large amounts are also used in making wearing apparel and industrial equipment.


Fibers closely related to nylons are the aramids, which came onto the United States market in the 1960s. They are the toughest, strongest, and most heat-resistant of all the fibers of their class. Radial automobile tires reinforced with aramid cords are similar to those reinforced with steel. Nylons and aramids are polyamides; each amide group is formed by the reaction of an amino group of one molecule with a carboxyl group of another.


For the three decades following their introduction, the nylon fibers were produced in greater amounts than any other man-made fiber except those based on cellulose. In 1972, however, polyesters moved into first place. The most important of these was developed in the United Kingdom, and its commercial production began in about 1950. It is made from ethylene glycol, a compound containing two hydroxyl groups; and terephthalic acid, a compound containing two carboxyl groups. In the United States, fibers made from this polyester are called Dacron and Kodel. The largest amounts of polyesters are used in making clothing. Smaller amounts are used for carpeting, upholstery fabrics, ropes, and drive belts for machinery. The properties resemble those of nylon. 041b061a72


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